Who Signed The Taif Agreement

The reform of the executive provided for in the Taf Agreement was implemented in 1989. Political sectarianism in Lebanon was refined and adopted by the independence movement in November 1943 through the so-called National Pact, an un written agreement that laid the foundations for a sectarian system in the republic after independence. Surprisingly, the pact survived the civil war from 1975 to 1990. The conflict began in part because of calls to abolish political bigotry. Nevertheless, political sectarianism was reaffirmed and even consolidated in the 1989 Taf Agreement, also known as the Document of National Unity. In this regard, Lebanon has the illustrious privilege of having been a pioneer in the creation of a system based on sectarianism, and also a laboratory that highlights its dysfunctions and limitations. The agreement restructured the political system of the National Pact in Lebanon by removing some power from the Maronite Christian community, which had received privileged status in Lebanon under French colonial rule. Before Taif, the Sunni Muslim prime minister was appointed by the Maronite president and in charge of him. According to Taif, the prime minister was in charge of the legislature, as in a traditional parliamentary system.

At the time of the Taif negotiations, a Maronite-Christian Prime Minister, General Michel Aoun, had been controversially appointed by President Amine Gemayel contrary to the National Pact. 11. Negotiate, in agreement with the Prime Minister, the conclusion and signature of international treaties, which will become valid only with the consent of the Cabinet. The Cabinet should familiarize the Chamber of Deputies with such contracts if the interest of the country and the security of the State so permit. Contracts containing conditions of public finances, trade agreements and other contracts that cannot be terminated annually may not be concluded without the agreement of the Chamber of Deputies. The agreement also provided for outrage from all national and non-national militias. Hezbollah, as a “resilience” and not a militia, was allowed to remain armed and fight Israel in the south, a privilege it received, according to Swedish academic Magnus Ranstorp, in part by using its influence as the owner of a number of Western hostages. [9] According to As`ad AbuKhalil and many Lebanese Christians, the agreement severely limited the president`s power in favor of the Council of Ministers, although there is an ongoing debate about whether that power has been transferred to the council as a whole or to the prime minister. The president, who had considerable executive power before the deal, was reduced to a figurehead with no real and/or considerable power, as in most parliamentary republics. He also pointed out that the agreement extended the mandate of the speaker of the Lebanese parliament from one year to four years, although the post “remains largely without significant authority.” [10] Exactly 30 years ago, on October 22, 1988, Christian and Muslim members of the Lebanese parliament signed a pact in Taif, Saudi Arabia, in which they pledged to abolish sectarianism. The deal, known as the Taf Agreement, sought a political solution to a bloody war — fueled in part by sectarianism — that killed more than 100,000 people.